This deliverable provides an overview of the business models and use cases defined during the first round of workshops accompanied by requirements from a business perspective and an indication of potential markets for these solutions. The business models for the different sustainable urban mobility solutions that will be tested in GreenCharge’s pilots have to be improved during the project. However, during the first round of workshops the first initial business models were already identified and discussed, resulting in the business models described in this deliverable. These business models can be seen as a starting point for further improvements based on experience gained during the project.
The initial versions of the business models were identified during the Business Model Innovation (BMI) game. In this game, local stakeholders had their chance to give input from their point of view. The goal of the BMI-game is to support in defining business models or parts of business models that can be tested in the real life pilot or can be simulated. Playing the game provides insight in:
• Considerations of participants in redesigning a business model
• Opportunities and considerations of experts in sharing charging infrastructure
• Validation of the business modelling concepts in their purpose to enable easy redesign of a business model.
The identified business models can be seen as customized business models for a specific situation (pilot sites). Due to the different nature of the pilots, a lot of differences can be found when comparing these initial business models. This is the result of variances in investment or operation costs, revenues, electricity provision, charging methods and modalities. The possibilities regarding these options show the opportunity to create a customized sustainable mobility solution for any place.
The actual revenue model for the commercial stakeholders depends on the product that will be sold. If this product is a service (e.g. renting a LEV), earning money by subscription and an additional payment each time the LEV is used is an attractive revenue model. Other stakeholders could sell their service (e.g. peak shaving software) through licensing in order to gain stable earnings. For the stakeholders that provide charging points their revenue model depends on the amount of local RES that can be used for charging the vehicles. If they are able to generate their own energy through PV panels, their initial investment costs will be higher but their overall revenue will grow due to the lower electricity costs that have to be paid to the DSO. A specific approach based on the local conditions is needed to identify a well-fitting business model. These initial business models will be revised based on experience gained during the project.
For identification of potential markets the HEMI index is used. This index compares the four components of the e-mobility ecosystem: market demand, market environment, national policies and complementary macro-economic indicators. Through this index the comparison of 33 markets (countries) can be simplified. The score on the index ranges from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 5 points and is calculated for each country as a result of a mix of various indicators. The higher its HEMI is, the more a country is attractive for the development of services in the field of e-mobility. On the contrary, the lower the HEMI, the lower the performance and the maturity of the market is, and the more difficult any market entry might be. High ranked European countries are Norway, the Netherlands and Germany. European countries that are lower ranked are Greece, Bulgaria and the Republic of Cyprus. Spain, as one of the pilot countries, can be found in the middle of the ranking.